Middle-east Arab News Opinion | Asharq Al-awsat

Arab Republic of Egypt | ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English Archive 2005 -2017
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• 1859: Work on the Suez Canal project, an artificial waterway connecting the Mediterranean and Red seas, begins. It opens 10 years later. • 1914: Egypt becomes a British protectorate. • 1922: Egypt gains independence from Britain. • 1928: Hassan Al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood, now the largest and oldest political Islamist group. • July 1952: During the July 23 revolution, the nation is declared a republic. • 1956: President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal, prompting the Suez crisis. • 1967: Israel attacks Egypt by surprise, prompting the Six-Day War. Egypt is defeated; Israel takes control of the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula. • 1973: Egypt and Syria attack Israel to reclaim lands lost in the Six-Day War. • 1978: The Camp David Accords are signed, preserving peace between Egypt and Israel. Egypt is excluded from the Arab League. • 1981: President Anwar Al-Sadat is assassinated, along six other diplomats. The murders are attributed to a jihadist group. • 1989: Egypt is permitted to join the Arab League. • 1999: Egypt asks former Allied and Axis countries to provide financial and technological support to demine Egypt’s 23 million landmines. • May 2005: A referendum paves the way for the country’s first direct multi-party presidential election. Incumbent Hosni Mubarak wins a fifth consecutive six-year term. The election is highly contested. • November 2010: Parliamentary elections. Amidst allegations of government corruption and election fraud, the US calls on Egypt to allow foreign election monitors. Egyptian officials refuse the suggestion. • January–February 2011: Popular uprising begins on January 25 demanding Mubarak’s resignation, which comes on February 8. Power is transferred to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) shortly afterwards. • November 2011: Clashes between anti-SCAF protesters and security forces in Tahrir Square, leading to around 40 deaths. SCAF later apologises for these deaths after it was criticized for its heavy handedness. • December 2011: National Unity Government formed; it is headed by Prime Minister Kamal Al-Ganzouri. • May–June 2012: In the first democratic presidential elections in Egyptian history, Muslim Brotherhood member Mohamed Mursi and Mubarak’s former prime minister, Ahmed Shafiq, emerge as the main contenders for the presidency. Mohamed Mursi is voted president in the run-off. • June 2012: Court sentences Mubarak to life imprisonment. • August 2012: Hisham Qandil is appointed prime minister. He forms a government dominated by technocrats. • November 2012: President Mursi issues a constitutional declaration giving himself the power to legislate without review or judicial oversight. The highly unpopular decree is repealed in December. • July 2013: Mohamed Mursi is removed from office following mass protests against the unpopular constitutional declaration and economic stagnation. Adly Mansour is appointed interim president. Hisham Qandil is appointed interim prime minister.



Official Name: Arab Republic of Egypt
Capital: Cairo
Interim President: Adly Mansour
Interim Prime Minister: Hazem El-Beblawi
Commander of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces: Gen. Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi